GREEK MYTH - OLYMPIAN GODS, OTHER GODS:
Zeus was the god of the sky and ruler of the Olympian gods. He overthrew his father, Cronus, and then drew lots with his brothers Poseidon and Hades, in order to decide who would succeed their father on the throne. Zeus won the draw and became the supreme ruler of the gods, as well as lord of the sky and rain. His weapon was a thunderbolt which he hurled at those who displeased or defied him, especially liars and oathbreakers. He was married to Hera but often tested her patience, as he was infamous for his many affairs.
Zeus, the presiding deity of the universe, ruler of the skies and the earth, was regarded by the Greeks as the god of all natural phenomena on the sky; the personification of the laws of nature; the ruler of the state; and finally, the father of gods and men.
Using his shield, the Aegis, Zeus could create all natural phenomena related to the air and the sky, such as storms, tempests, and intense darkness. At his command, mighty thunders would flash and lightnings would roll, wreaking havoc; or the skies would open to rejuvenate the earth with life-giving water.
As the personification of the operations of nature, he represented the grand laws of unchanging and harmonious order, by which both the natural and the spiritual world were governed. He was the god of regulated time as marked by the changing seasons and the regular succession of day and night, in contrast to what his father Cronus represented before him; absolute time, i.e. eternity.
As the ruler of the state, he was the source of kingly power, the upholder of all institutions connected to the state, and the friend and patron of princes, whom he guarded and assisted with his advice and counsel. He was also the protector of the people, and watched over the welfare of the whole community.
As the father of the gods, Zeus ascertained that each deity perform their individual duty, punished their misdeeds, settled their disputes, and acted towards them on all occasions as their all-knowing counsellor and mighty friend.
As the father of men, he took a paternal interest in the actions and well-being of mortals. He watched over them with tender solicitude, rewarding truth, charity, and fairness, while severely punishing perjury and cruelty. Even the poorest and most forlorn wanderer could find a powerful advocate in Zeus, for he, as a wise and merciful paternal figure, demanded that the wealthy inhabitants of the earth be attentive to the needs of their less fortunate fellow citizens.
Poseidon is the god of the sea and protector of all aquatic features. Brother of Zeus and Hades, after the overthrow of their father, Cronus, he drew lots with them to share the universe. He ended up becoming lord of the sea. He was widely worshipped by seamen. He married Amphitrite, one of the granddaughters of the Titan Oceanus.
At one point he desired Demeter. To deter him, Demeter asked him to make the most beautiful animal that the world had ever seen. So, in an effort to impress her, Poseidon created the first horse. In some accounts, his first attempts were unsuccessful and created a variety of other animals in his quest; thus, by the time the horse was created, his passion for Demeter had diminished.
His weapon was a trident, with which he could make the earth shake, causing earthquakes, and shatter any object. He was second to Zeus in power amongst the gods. He was considered by Greeks to have a difficult quarrelsome personality. Combined with his greed, he had a series of disputes with other gods during his various attempts to take over the cities they were patrons of.
Hades was the brother of Zeus and Poseidon. After the overthrow of their father, Cronus, he drew lots with them to share the universe. He drew poorly, which resulted in becoming lord of the underworld and ruler of the dead. Nevertheless, he was not considered to be death itself, as this was a different god, called Thanatos. Greedy like his brother Poseidon, he was mainly interested in increasing his subjects, and anyone whose deeds resulted in people dying was favoured by him. The Erinnyes (the Furies) were welcomed guests in his kingdom.
The Greeks were not keen on uttering his name, afraid of causing some kind of reaction that would end up with them dead sooner. Instead, they decided to give him another name, Plouton, deriving from the Greek word for wealth, due to the precious metals mined from the earth. Thus, Hades also became the god of wealth.
Although an Olympian, Hades preferred the Underworld and rarely left his kingdom. His weapon was a pitchfork, which he used to create earthquakes, similar to the way Poseidon used his trident. He also had a helmet of invisibility, which he had received as a gift from the Cyclopes, in order to use it during the clash of the Titans. He was married to Persephone, daughter of Demeter, whom Hades abducted and carried down to the Underworld.
Hephaestus was the Greek god of blacksmiths, sculptors, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes; thus, he is symbolised with a hammer, an anvil and a pair of tongs.
According to Homer's epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, he was the son of Zeus and Hera. However, Hesiod informs us that Hera bore Hephaestus alone. According to an account, after Hephaestus was born, Hera threw him from Olympus because he was crippled; he fell into the ocean and was raised by Thetis and Eurynome. Another myth has it that he once tried to protect his mother from Zeus' advances and as a result, the father of the Gods flung him down from Olympus, which caused his physical disability; he fell on the island of Lemnos where he became a master craftsman. He was later accepted back to Olympus, and became the craftsman of the gods, creating majestic armors, shields and weapons.
He was married to Aphrodite; after he learned his wife had an affair with her brother, Ares, he devised a plan with which he humiliated both lovers to the other gods.
Ares was the god of war, and son of Zeus and Hera. He represented the raw violence and untamed acts that occured in wartime, in contrast to Athena, who was a symbol of tactical strategy and military planning.
He was disliked by both his parents. Whenever Ares appeared in a myth, he was depicted as a violent personality, who faced humiliation through his defeats more than once. In the Iliad, it is mentioned that Zeus hated him more than anyone else; Ares was also on the losing side of the Trojan War, favouring the Trojans. He was the lover of his sister, Aphrodite, who was married to Hephaestus. When the latter found out about the affair, he devised a plan and managed to humiliate both of them. The union of Ares and Aphrodite resulted in the birth of eight children, including Eros, god of love.
There were few temples attributed to Ares in Ancient Greece. Sacrifices would usually be made to him when an army would march to war; Spartans would make sacrifices to Enyalius, another lesser god and son of Ares and Enyo. However, the name was also used as a byname for Ares.
When Ares went to war, he was followed by his companions, Deimos (terror) and Phobos (fear), who were the product of his union with Aphrodite. Eris, goddess of discord and sister of Deimos and Phobos, often accompanied them in war.
Aphrodite was the goddess of love, desire and beauty. Apart from her natural beauty, she also had a magical girdle that compelled everyone to desire her.
There are two accounts of her birth. According to one, she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione, the mother goddess worshipped at the Oracls of Dodona. However, the other account, which is more prevalent, informs us that she arose from the sea on a giant scallop, after Cronus castrated Uranus and tossed his severed genitals into the sea. Aphrodite then walked to the shore of Cyprus. In a different version of the myth, she was born near the island of Cythera, hence her epithet "Cytherea".
Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus; however, she had an affair with her brother Ares, god of war. When Hephaestus found out about the affair, he devised a plan and managed to humiliate his wife and her lover to the other Olympians. Her holy tree was the myrtle, while her holy birds were the dove, the swan, and the sparrow.
Aphrodite represented sex, affection, and the attraction that binds people together.
Apollo was the son of Zeus and Leto, twin brother of Artemis. He was the god of music, and he is often depicted playing a golden lyre. He was also known as the Archer, far shooting with a silver bow; the god of healing, giving the science of medicine to man; the god of light; and the god of truth. One of Apollo's most important daily tasks was to harness his four-horse chariot, in order to move the Sun across the sky.
Apollo was an oracular god, as he was the prophetic deity in the Oracle in Delphi. People from all over the known world travelled there to learn what the future held for them, through his priestess Pythia. The god was also worshipped in the island of Delos, which was initially dedicated to his twin sister Artemis. In relation to the rituals and practices that took place in Delos and Delphi, it could be said that there were two completely distinct cults in honour of Apollo.
As already mentioned, Apollo was also considered as the god of healing and medicine, either through himself or through his son Asclepius. At the same time, he could also bring forth disease and plague with his arrows; it was considered that a god that can cause disease is also able to prevent it.
He was born on Delos, where his mother Leto seeked refuge; Hera, having realised that Leto was impregnated by her husband Zeus, banned Leto from giving birth on land. So, Leto managed to go to Delos, which had recently been formed, and therefore, was not considered a real island yet. The inhabitants of the island, along with Artemis who had been born a day earlier, helped Leto give birth to Apollo. Leto then promised the Delians that Apollo would always favour them for having helped her.
His holy tree was the laurel, and his holy animal was the dolphin.
Artemis was the goddess of chastity, virginity, the hunt, the moon, and the natural environment.
She was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo. She was born on the island of Ortygia (Delos), where Leto had found shelter after being hunted by the lawful wife of Zeus, Hera. As soon as Artemis was born, she helped her mother give birth to her twin brother, thereby becoming the protector of childbirth and labour. She asked her father to grant her eternal chastity and virginity, and never gave in to any potential lovers; devoted to hunting and nature, she rejected marriage and love.
She was the protector of nature and the hunt; both wild and tame animals were under her protection. She also protected the agriculture and animal herding.
Artemis appeared in a number of myths. In the myth of Actaeon, he was a hunting companion of Artemis; at some point, he saw the goddess naked bathing in a spring and tried to rape her. As a punishment, Artemis transformed him into a stag and his hounds killed him. In the myth of Orion which has various versions, Orion was also a hunting companion of Artemis and the only person to have won her heart. However, he was accidentally killed either by the goddess or by a scorpion which was sent by Gaea. In another myth, Callisto was one of the followers of Artemis and thus she had remained a virgin. Zeus, however, changing his form to resemble Artemis, managed to seduce and rape her, impregnating her. Callisto gave birth to Arcas, but later, she was transformed into a bear either by Hera or Artemis. Arcas almost killed his mother, but Zeus stopped him and placed Callisto in the heavens as a constellation. According to other sources, both Callisto and Arcas were turned into the Ursa Minor and the Ursa Major
Hermes was the Greek god of commerce, son of Zeus and Maia. Quick acting and cunning, he was able to move swiftly between the world of man and the world of gods, acting as a messenger of the gods and the link between mortals and the Olympians.
He was the protector of travelers, thieves and athletes. He occassionally tricked the other gods for his own amusement or in an effort to protect humans. With the ability to move freely between worlds, he also served as the guide of the souls of the dead to the underworld and the afterlife.
When Hermes was born, he jumped out of his crib, stole Apollo's cattle and then went back to his crib playing innocent. However, Apollo figured it out, grabbed Hermes and went to Zeus to complain. The father of gods simply laughed and didn't punish Hermes. To apologise, Hermes gave Apollo the lyre which he had just invented. Hermes appeared in many other myths; in the Odyssey, Odysseus was instructed by the god to chew a magic herb with which he would be able to avoid Circe's powers and not be transformed to animals like his companions; in the myth of Pandora, when the gods provided a trait to her, Hermes gave her the ability to lie and seduce with her words.
Hestia was the goddess of the hearth, family, and domestic life. She was not worshipped publicly, which is evident by the lack of temples and shrines attributed to her; this comes in contrast to the Roman equivalent goddess Vesta, who represented the public hearth. Her name meant both a house and a hearth, symbolising the home and its residents. She also represented the coalition and relationship between the colonies and the mother cities. She was Zeus' sister, but although initially she was included in the Olympian gods, she was later replaced by Dionysus. She took a vow to remain a virgin, refusing to give in to the callings of Poseidon and Apollo; once, she was almost raped by Priapus, a lesser god of fertility, but was saved thanks to the braying of a mule.
Hera was Zeus' wife and sister, and was raised by the Titans Oceanus and Tethys. She was the supreme goddess, patron of marriage and childbirth, having a special interest in protecting married women. Her sacred animals were the cow and the peacock, and she favoured the city of Argos.
Zeus initially courted Hera, but after many unsuccessful attempts, he resorted to trickery. He took the form of a disheveled cuckoo; Hera, feeling sorry for the bird, held it to her breast to keep it warm. Zeus then resumed his normal form and taking advantage of Hera's surprise, he raped her. Hera then married him to cover her shame; their marriage was turbulent and they often clashed.
Occassionally, Zeus treated the other gods with particular harshness; Hera took advantage of that and asked them to join her in a revolt. They all accepted and set the plan in motion; Hera drugged Zeus, and then, the others bound him to a couch. At that stage, however, they began to argue over what the next step should be. Briareus, one of the Hecatoncheires, overheard the arguments; still full of gratitude to Zeus for saving him and his brothers from a dragon, Briareus sneaked in and quickly untied the knots that held Zeus in place. Zeus sprang from the couch and grabbed his thunderbolt. The gods fell to their knees begging and pleading for mercy. He seized Hera and hung her from the sky with gold chains. She wept in pain all night, but none of the other gods dared to interfere. Her weeping kept Zeus up, so the following morning, he agreed to release her if she swore never to rebel again. She had little choice but to agree. While she never again rebelled, she often interfered with Zeus's plans and she was often able to outwit him.
Most stories concerning Hera deal with her jealousy and her plans of revenge for Zeus's infidelities.
Athena was the Greek virgin goddess of reason, intelligent activity, arts and literature. She was the daughter of Zeus; her birth is unique in that she did not have a mother. Instead, she sprang full grown and clad in armour from Zeus' forehead.
She was fierce and brave in battle; however, she only took part in wars that defended the state and home from outside enemies. She was the patron of the city, handcraft, and agriculture. She invented the bridle, which permitted man to tame horses, the trumpet, the flute, the pot, the rake, the plow, the yoke, the ship, and the chariot. She was the embodiment of wisdom, reason, and purity. She was Zeus' favourite child and was allowed to use his weapons including his thunderbolt. Her holy tree was the olive tree and she was often symbolised as an owl.
She became the patron goddess of Athens after winning a contest against Poseidon by offering the olive tree to the Athenians. It is evident that Athena and Athens derive from the same root; Athens (or Athenae) is in plural form, because it represents the sisterhood of the goddess that existed there. Similarly, Athena was called Mykene in the city of Mycenae (also a plural after the respective sisterhood), and Thebe in the city of Thebes (or Thebae, both plural forms).
Dionysus was the god of fertility and wine, later considered a patron of the arts. He created wine and spread the art of viticulture. He had a dual nature; on one hand, he brought joy and divine ecstasy; or he would bring brutal and blinding rage, thus reflecting the dual nature of wine. Dionysus and his followers could not be bound by fetters.
Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Semele, and he was the only god with a mortal parent. Zeus went to Semele in the night, unseen by human eyes, but could be felt as a divine presence. Semele was pleased to be the lover of a god, even though she did not know which one. Word soon got around and Hera quickly assumed who was responsible. She went to Semele in disguise and convinced her she should see her lover as he really was. When Zeus visited her again, she made him promise to grant her one wish. She went so far as to make him swear on the River Styx that he would grant her request. Zeus was madly in love and agreed. She then asked him to show her his true form. Zeus was unhappy knowing what was about to happen, but bound by his oath, he had no choice. He appeared in his true form and Semele was instantly burnt to a crisp by the sight of his glory. Zeus managed to rescue the fetal Dionysus and stitched him into his thigh until he would be ready to be born. His birth from Zeus conferred immortality upon him.
Hera, still jealous of Zeus' infidelity and the fact that Dionysus was alive, arranged for the Titans to kill him. The Titans ripped him to pieces; however, Rhea brought him back to life. After this, Zeus arranged for his protection and gave him to the mountain nymphs to be raised.
Dionysus wandered the world actively spreading his cult. He was accompanied by the Maenads, wild women, flush with wine, shoulders draped with a fawn skin, carrying rods tipped with pine cones. While other gods had temples to be worshipped at, the followers of Dionysus worshipped him in the woods. There, they might go into a state of ecstasy and madness, ripping apart and eating raw any animal they might come upon.
Dionysus was also one of the very few characters able to bring a dead person back from the underworld. Even though he had never seen Semele, he was concerned for her. Eventually, he journeyed into the underworld to find her. He faced down Thanatos and brought her back to Mount Olympus.
Dionysus became one of the most important gods in everyday life and was associated with several key concepts. One was rebirth after death; his dismemberment by the Titans and his return to life was symbolically echoed in viticulture, where the vines must be pruned back sharply, and then become dormant in winter for them to bear fruit. Another concept was that under the influence of wine, one could feel possessed by a greater power. Unlike other gods, Dionysus was not merely a god to be worshipped, but he was also present within his followers; at those times, a man would possess supernatural powers and was able for things he would not be able to do otherwise.
The festival for Dionysus was held in the spring when vines would start bearing leaves. It became one of the most important events of the year and its primary focal point was the theater. Most of the great Greek plays were initially written to be performed at the feast of Dionysus. All participants, writers, actors, spectators, were regarded as sacred servants of Dionysus during the festival.
Amphitrite was one of the sea nymphs Nereids, fifty sisters in total and daughters of Nereus and Doris. She was the wife of Poseidon and had two children with him; a son named Triton, a merman; and Rhode. Amphitrite also gave birth to other children, such as seals and dolphins. Initially, she was considered an important deity, as mentioned in the Homeric Hymn, when she was present at the birth of Apollo, alongside Dione, Rhea and Themis. Gradually, she became less important and in the end, the poets used her name as a mere representation of the sea. Her Roman counterpart was Salacia, the goddess of saltwater.
Iris was the personification of the rainbow in Greek mythology, as well as messenger of the gods along with Hermes. She was also known as the goddess of the sea and the sky. She was the daughter of Thaumas and Electra, sister to Arke, Aello, Celaeno and Ocypete. She was married to Zephyrus, the god of the west wind, and had a son, Pothos. It was said that she travelled on the rainbow while carrying divine messages to the mortals. She was depicted carrying a pitcher filled with water from the River Styx, which she gave to anyone who perjured themselves, putting them to sleep.
During the Titanomachy, the war between the Titans and the Olympians, Iris fought on the side of the Olympians, while her twin sister Arke sided with the Titans; both served as messengers. Iris had golden wings, while Arke's irridescent wings were torn by Zeus in the war, who later gave them as a present to Thetis. Thetis, in her turn, gifted them to her son, Achilles, who wore them on his feet.
Hecate was a goddess in Greek mythology, considered to be the goddess of magic and witchcraft. She was often depicted holding two torches or a key. She was the daughter of the Titans Perses and Asteria, and she was honoured in the households as a protective goddess who brought prosperity.
Hecate was a chthonic goddess that preceded the Olympians, and it seems that she was highly worshipped in Thrace. She was also closely associated to the spiritual world, ghosts, and the dead. A shrine to Hecate was placed at the entrances of homes or even cities, hoping to protect them from the evil spirits that roamed the world. She also helped goddess Demeter in her search for her daughter Persephone, when the latter was abducted by Hades, god of the underworld; after it was decided that Persephone would spend a third of a year in the underworld and the rest on earth, Hecate became Persephone's companion to and from the underworld each year.
In art, she was initially depicted as being a single figure. However, in later periods, statues depicted her as three-fold, having three faces and three bodies united.
Eris was the Greek goddess of chaos, strife and discord. She was the daughter of Zeus and Hera; according to other myths, she was the daughter of Nyx (dark night) alone. Her opposite was Harmonia. The equivalent Roman goddesses of Eris and Harmonia were Discordia and Concordia. She had a son, Strife, whom she brought along with her when she rode her chariot to war alongside Aris.
Eris played an important role in the events that eventually led to the Trojan War. All of the Olympians had been invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, who would become the parents of Achilles; however, Eris was not invited, due to her inclination to cause discord. As a means of revenge, Eris dropped the golden Apple of Discord into the party, which had the words To The Fairest One inscribed on it. Hera, Athena and Aphrodite started quarreling over who the apple should be given to, so Zeus appointed Paris, Prince of Troy, as the person to solve the dispute. The goddesses offered Paris various gifts, but he eventually picked Aphrodite, who promised him the most beautiful woman in the world; Helen, wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta.
Demeter was the goddess of corn, grain, and the harvest. She was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. It was believed that Demeter made the crops grow each year; thus the first loaf of bread made from the annual harvest was offered to her. She was the goddess of the earth, of agriculture, and of fertility in general. Sacred to her are livestock and agricultural products, poppy, narcissus and the crane.
Demeter was intimately associated with the seasons. Her daughter Persephone was abducted by Hades to be his wife in the underworld. In her anger at her daughter's loss, Demeter laid a curse on the world that caused plants to wither and die, and the land to become desolate. Zeus, alarmed for the barren earth, sought for Persephone's return. However, because she had eaten while in the underworld, Hades had a claim on her. Therefore, it was decreed that Persephone would spend four months each year in the underworld. During these months Demeter would grieve for her daughter's absence, withdrawing her gifts from the world, creating winter. Her return brought the spring.
Demeter was also known for founding the Eleusinian Mysteries. These were huge festivals held every five years and very important events for many centuries. Yet, little is known about them as those attending were sworn to secrecy. It is thought that the central tenet around which the Mysteries revolved was that just like grain returns every spring after its harvest and the winter lull, so does the human soul after the death of the body, reincarnated in a next life.
Persephone was the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, and the queen of the underworld. She was abducted by Hades, the god of the underworld, infuriating her mother who made the crops wither and the earth barren. Zeus intervened and tried to bring Persephone back to the world of the living; however, Persephone ate the seeds of a pomegranate that Hades had given to her, binding her to him for one third of the year. Thus, it was decided that Persephone spend four months in the underworld and eight months on earth with her mother. The period in the underworld corresponded to the winter season, during which Demeter would make the soils barren due to her grief, while her return marked the start of the spring.
She was also given a number of epithets; she was often called Kore (the maiden) and Kore Soteira (the saviour maiden); Hagne (the pure); Aristi Cthonia (the best cthonic); and Despoina (the mistress of the house).
Aeolus was a name given to three mythical characters, but their myths are deeply intertwined in such a fashion that the characters are often difficult to tell apart.
However, the most famous of them was the son of Hippotes that is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey as the Keeper of the Winds; in this myth, Aeolus gave Odysseus a closed bag that contained all winds, but for the gentle West Wind that would take him home. However, Odysseus' companions, thinking the bag contained riches, opened the bag and the winds escaped, blowing the ship in all directions and thus extending their voyage back home. Aeolus was later considered to have been a god rather than a mortal as depicted in the Odyssey. He had twelve children, six sons and six daughters.
Another Aeolus was the son of Hellen and Orseis, and ruler of Aeolia. He married Enarete, with whom he had numerous children, including Sisyphus, Athamas, Cretheus, and Salmoneus. Finally, the third character with the same name was the son of Poseidon and Arne, and was often indistinguishable from the first Aeolus, keeper of the winds.
Aether was one of the primordial deities in Greek mythology, the son of the primordial deities Erebus (darkness) and Nyx (night), or according to Orphic Hymns, Chronos (time) and Ananke (necessity). He was the brother of Hemera (day), and according to some sources, he fathered Gaea (earth), Thalassa (sea) and Uranus (heavens). He was the personification of the upper air that only gods breathe, as opposed to the normal air breathed by mortals. The air encircling the mortal world was called Chaos or Aer, while the Underworld where the dead dwelled was enveloped in Erebos, the mist of darkness.
Apate was a deity in Greek mythology, the personification of deceit. Her mother was Nyx, the primordial goddess of night, and her father was Erebos, the personification of darkness. She was the sister of Geras (old age), Oizys (suffering), Moros (doom), Momos (blame), Eris (strife), Nemesis (retribution) and Keres (carnage and violent death). When the box of Pandora was opened, Apate was one of the evil spirits that came out of it. Her male counterpart was Dolos.
Asclepius was the ancient Greek god of medicine, son of the god Apollo and Coronis, the daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths. He was married to Epione, the goddess of soothing; together, they had a number of children; their daughters were Panacea (goddess of medicines), Hygeia (goddess of health), Iaso (goddess of recuperation), Aceso (goddess of the healing process), Aglaea or Aegle (goddess of magnificence and splendor). They also had four sons; Machaon and Podalirius were legendary healers who fought in the Trojan War; Telesphorus who accompanied his sister, Hygeia, and symbolised recuperation; and Aratus.
Asclepius was given to the Centaur Chiron, who raised him and taught him medicine and the healing arts. At some point, Asclepius healed a snake, which in return taught him secret knowledge - snakes were considered divine beings that were wise and could heal. This is how the symbol of Asclepius and later healing was a rod wreathed with a snake. Asclepius was so good at healing that he had managed to cheat death and bring people back from the underworld. As a result, Zeus killed him to maintain the balance and placed him on the night sky under the constellation of the Ophiuchus (the snake holder).
Aura was a deity that represented the gentle breeze of the early morning. It appeared both in Greek and Roman mythology. She was the daughter of Lelantos and Periboa. It is also said that Aurae were similar to ghosts, having the ability to disappear into the air.
Bia was a Titan goddess in Greek mythology, daughter of the Titans Pallas and Styx, and had three siblings; Nike, Kratos, and Zelus. Bia was the personification of force. During the Titanomachy, the war between the Titans and the Olympians out of which the latter emerged victorious, Bia and her siblings sided with Zeus, along with Styx. To honour them, Zeus made the four siblings his constant companions.
Nike was the goddess of victory in Greek mythology, depicted as having wings, hence her alternative name "Winged Goddess". She was the daughter of the Titan Pallas and the goddess Styx, sister of Kratos (power), Bia (Force) and Zelus (zeal). The four siblings were companions of Zeus, and Nike had the role of the divine charioteer, flying above battlefields and giving glory to the victors.
Eileithyia was a goddess in Greek mythology, daughter of Zeus and Hera, and represented childbirth. She was born in a cave near Knossos, Crete, and became the main place of worship for the goddess. The goddess was also worshipped in Olympia, which is attested by the discovery of a shrine attributed to her, while other shrines have also been found in Tegea, Argos and Aigion; icons of the goddess were also found in Athens. Her name was also mentioned in a fragment from Knossos written in Linear B.
Momus was the god of satire, mockery, and poets in Greek mythology; as well as a spirit of evil-spirited blame and unfair criticism. His name meaned 'blame' or 'censure' and he was depicted as lifting a mask from his face. He was the son of the Titan goddess Nyx (night). He constantly mocked the Olympians, and because of this, he was exiled from Mount Olympus.
Deimos was a god in Greek mythology, personification of terror (his name meant "dread"). He was the son of gods Ares and Aphrodite, and had a twin brother, Phobos ("fear"). He did not appear in any stories in Greek mythology, but he was a mere representation of the terror that is brought upon humans by war.
Enyo was a goddess in Greek mythology, sister and companion of the god of war, Ares, and daughter of Zeus and Hera. She was the goddess of war and destruction; in some cases, she was closely linked to Eris, goddess of strife. The two of them, along with the sons of Ares, Phobos (fear) and Deimos (dread), spread terror during the fall of the city of Troy; the four of them were also depicted on the shield of Achilles.
Helios was one of the Titans, son of Hyperion and Theia. He was the personification of the Sun and his sisters were the goddesses Selene (the Moon) and Eos (the Dawn). He drove the chariot of the sun across the sky on a daily basis, as it was pulled by horses named Pyrois, Aeos, Aethon and Phlegon. In later times, Helios was considered being the god of light, Apollo, although sometimes they would still be thought of as distinct deities; after all, Helios was a Titan, while Apollo was an Olympian. He was married to either Perse or Clymene, and had a number of children; they included the Charites, Phaeton, Circe, Aeetes, Pasiphae, Heliadae and Heliades.
Helios did not play a major part in Greek mythology, as he was eventually replaced by Apollo. However, one of the best known stories around Helios revolves around his son Phaeton, who tried to drive his father's chariot; however, he lost control and set the earth on fire. He also appears in the Homeric Epic, the Odyssey, in which Odysseus and his men reached an island dedicated to the god. There, Odysseus' men, starving, killed some of the cattle and Helios was infuriated; he complained to Zeus and threatened that he would take the sun and make it shine in the Underworld. So, Zeus destroyed the ship of Odysseus with a lightning bolt, killing of all of the men except for Odysseus.
Hypnos was a primordial deity in Greek mythology, the personification of sleep. He lived in a cave next to his twin brother, Thanatos, in the underworld, where no light was cast by the sun or the moon; the earth in front of the cave was full of poppies and other sleep-inducing plants. The river Lethe (the river of forgetfulness) flowed through the cave. He was the son of Nyx (night) and Erebus (darkness), while his wife, Pasithea, was one of the youngest of the Graces and was given to him by Hera. Hypnos and Pasithea had a number of sons called the Oneiroi (the dreams), who according to some sources were three in number; Morpheus, Phobetor and Phantasos.
Hypnos managed to put Zeus to sleep twice, when he was asked by Hera. The first time, Hera devised a plan to avenge the ransacking of Troy by Heracles, Zeus' son; so, Hypnos put Zeus to sleep and Hera unleashed angry winds on the oceans while Heracles was sailing home from Troy. When Zeus awoke, he was infuriated and tried to find Hypnos, who managed to hide with his mother, Nyx.
The second time, Hypnos was reluctant to trick Zeus again, afraid of his wrath. Hera, however, told him that she would give him Pasithea, one of the youngest Charites (Graces), for his wife. After Hypnos made Hera swear an oath by the river Styx that she would fulfill her part of the bargain, he agreed to help her. Hera, dressed beautifully and having a charm that Aphrodite had given to her, went to Zeus, and lied to him, saying that her parents were quarreling, and that she wanted his approval to go and stop them. Zeus agreed, but he was so enchanted by her beauty that he took her in his embrace; at that moment, Hypnos made Zeus fall asleep. He immediately went to Poseidon to inform him that he could now help the Greeks in the Trojan War. That's how the myth has it that the Greeks won the war; Zeus never realised that he had been tricked once again.
Thanatos was the daemonic representation of death in Ancient Greek mythology (daemonic here is used with its classical meaning, which refers to benevolent or benign nature spirits). He did not play a major part in Greek mythology and rarely appeared in any stories, as he was mostly displaced by Hades, the god of the Underworld.
He was the son of Nyx (the Night) and Erebos (the Darkness), while his twin brother was Hypnos (the Sleep). Other siblings of Thanatos and Hypnos included Geras (old age), Eris (strife), Nemesis (retribution), Apate (deception) and Charon (the boatman that led the souls to the Underworld).
Thanatos was believed to be merciless and indiscriminate, and both mortals and gods hated him. However, he could sometimes be outsmarted. In a myth, Thanatos was told by Zeus to chain King Sisyphus in the Underworld, as it was time for him to die. Sisyphus managed to chain Thanatos in his own fetters, thus protecting all mortals from dying while the god was chained. In the end, god Ares, angry that at the wars he waged noone died, freed Thanatos and gave Sisyphus to him.
Oizys is the goddess of misery and suffering in Greek mythology, the daughter of Nyx, the goddess of night, and Erebos, the god of darkness. She is the twin sister of the god Momos, the personification of blame. Her Latin name is Miseria, from which the English word 'misery' is derived.
The Ourea were primordial deities in Greek mythology, children of Gaia alone. They represented the mountains of the world that was known to Greeks at the time. The ten Ourea were Aitna, Athos, Helikon, Kithairon, Nysos, Olympus 1, Olympus 2, Oreios, Parnes, and Tmolus. The individual mountains were rarely personified, with the exception of Tmolus that was both a king and a mountain. Each mountain had its own local mountain nymph, called oread.
Morpheus was a god of dreams who appeared in the literary work Metamorphoses of the Roman poet Ovid. He was the son of Somus and had a thousand siblings. He had the ability to take any human form and appear in dreams, but his actual form was that of a winged daemon.
Moros was a primordial deity in Greek mythology, and the personification of impending doom, driving mortals to their deadly fate. He was one of the offspring of Nyx (the night), who had conceived him without male intervention, and brother of the Moirai (the Fates). The Moirai said that even Zeus himself was unable to resist against the will of their brother. Therefore, if the father of gods made a promise, he was unable to break it, simply because it was destined to be.
Philotes was a minor primordial deity in Greek mythology, the spirit of friendship and affection. She was a daughter of Nyx (night) alone. She was considered the opposite of the Neikea (the Feuds).
Chaos was, according to Greek mythology, the origin of everything, and the first thing that ever existed. It was the primordial void, the source out of which everything was created, including the universe and the gods. The first primordial deities that emerged out of Chaos were Gaea (earth), Tartarus (underworld) and Eros (love), while later Erebus (darkness) and Nyx (night) also popped out. According to Hesiod, Chaos was also a place, much like Tartarus and the Heavens later, beyond which the Titans lived.
Nyx was a primordial deity in Greek mythology that preceded the Titans and the Olympians, and was the personification of the night. She was the daughter of Chaos, out of which all creation originated, and the sister of Erebus, Gaea and Tartarus. She was married to Erebus and had a number of children, including Nemesis (retribution), Hypnos (sleep), Thanatos (death), Geras (old age), Eris (strife) and Charon (the boatman who brought the souls of the dead to the gates of the underworld). According to Hesiod, Nyx's home was in Tartarus, along with her children Hypnos and Thanatos.
Hemera was one of the primordial deities in Greek mythology, the daughter of the primordial deities Erebus (darkness) and Nyx (night). She was the personification of the day. Her husband was her brother Aether, with whom she gave birth to Thalassa (sea), Uranus (heavens) and Gaia (earth).
Eros was the Greek god of love, son of Aphrodite and either Ares or Hermes. In some myths, he was considered a primordial god, a child of Chaos, who blessed the union of Gaia and Uranus after which the universe came into existence.
Especially in later works by satirical poets, he was depicted as a blindfolded male, who, carrying his bow and arrow, could target any human being and make them fall in love with the first person they would see. One of the most prevalent myths in ancient Greece was that of Eros and Psyche; according to it, Aphrodite was jealous of the beauty of mortal princess Psyche and told her son to make her fall in love with the ugliest creature on earth. However, Eros fell for her instead and took her to his divine abode. However, Psyche's jealous sisters led Psyche to betray Eros, who abandoned her; Psyche, wandering the Earth for her lost love, approached Aphrodite for help. Aphrodite created a series of tasks for Psyche which she successfully passed, and hence, Aphrodite decided to concede. Since then, Psyche became immortal and united with her husband. They had a daughter, Hedone (meaning bliss).
Circe was a minor goddess of magic in Greek mythology, daughter of the Titans Helios, god of the sun, and Perse, an Oceanid. She had two brothers, Aeetes, who was the guardian of the Golden Fleece (which Jason and the Argonauts sought after), and Perses; and a sister, Pasiphae, who was the wife of Minos, king of Crete.
She is best known for her role in Homer's Odyssey. During their adventures towards Ithaca, Odysseus and his companions reached Colchys, where the residence of Circe was. She invited them all to a grand feast, which a lot of Odysseus' companions attended but not him. At the feast, one of the dishes was laced with a magical potion; when Odysseus' companions ate it, Circe made a quick move with her wand and turned them into pigs. Only one of the companions escaped unharmed and informed Odysseus. The hero, after taking advice from Hermes, protected himself from the spell by using a holy herb, and managed to befriend Circe and save his companions.
Another source mentions that Circe and Odysseus had three sons; Ardeas, Latinus, and Telegonus. In a lost epic called Telegony, Circe told Telegonus that his father was Odysseus (who had meanwhile returned to Ithaca and his wife, Penelope), and Telegonus went to find him. However, Circe gave him a poisoned spear, with which Telegonus mistakenly killed his father. Afterwards, he returned home along with Penelope and Telemachus, his half brother, and Circe granted them immortality.
Uranus was a primal Greek god, symbolising the sky. According to Hesiod's Theogony, he was born by Gaea alone. Other sources say that his parents were Gaea and Chaos, or Gaea and Aether.
Uranus and Gaea had many children; the twelve Titans, three Cyclopes, and three Hecatoncheires. Hating his children, Uranus banished them to Tartarus, inside Gaea. Gaea was infuriated and created a diamond sickle, which she gave to Cronus, one of the Titans. Cronus found his father and castrated him in his sleep; from the blood that fell on the earth, the Erinnyes, the Giants and the Meliads were born; while from the sperm that fell into the sea, Aphrodite was born. Thus ended the reign of Uranus, and Cronus became the new ruler of the universe.
Gaea was a primal Greek goddess, one of the deities that governed the universe before the Titans. She symbolised the Earth, and was the mother of everything.
According to one version, Gaea, along with Chaos and Eros, coexisted during the creation of the world. Another version has it that the three of them were born out of the Cosmic Egg, which itself was created out of nothingness. Hesiod then tells us that from the union of Gaea and Chaos - and supported by Eros - Uranus was born. Gaea and Uranus gave birth to the Giants, the Titans, Oceanus and the whole world. At that point, Uranus decided to stop Gaea from creating anything else and sent his children inside her; Gaea was infuriated and allied with one of her Titan sons, Cronus, managing to overthrow Uranus. However, due to the cruelty of Cronus and his determination to remain on the throne, Gaea assisted Zeus in overthrowing Cronus, which marked the end of the age of the Titans.
Harmonia was the goddess of concord and harmony in Greek mythology, the opposite of goddess Eris (strife). She was considered the daughter of either Ares and Aphrodite, or of Zeus and Electra. She was married to Cadmus, the founder and first king of Thebes, with whom she had six children; Ino, Polydorus, Autonoe, Agave, Semele, and Illyrius.
The best known story about Harmonia revolves around the cursed necklace that she received on her wedding day. All the gods were invited to the wedding of Cadmus and Harmonia; Cadmus then gave to his wife a robe and a necklace, which he had received either from Hephaestus or Europa. However, the necklace was cursed and brought misfortune to its owner. The necklace was inherited by the descendants of Harmonia, bringing bad luck to all of them.
Pontus was one of the Greek primordial deities that ruled on the earth before the arrival of the Olympians. His name meaning sea, he was a sea god, son of Gaea alone. He and Gaea had five children, Nereus, "the old man of the sea"; Thaumas, "the wonder of the sea"; Phorcys; Ceto; and Eurybia.
The Moirai or Fates were three sister deities, incarnations of destiny and life. Their names were Clotho, the one who spins the thread of life; Lachesis, she who draws the lots and determines how long one lives, by measuring the thread of life; and Atropos, the inevitable, she who chose how someone dies by cutting the thread of life with her shears. They were often described as being ugly and old women, stern and severe. Three days after a child was born, it was thought that the Moirai would visit the house to determine the child's fate and life.
It seems that the Moirai controlled the fates of both mortals and gods alike. It may be that Zeus was the only one not bound by them, as an epithet that was used for him was Moiragetes (he who commands the fate). Other sources suggest, though, that he was also bound by the Moirai. It is also uncertain who their parents were; in some myths, they were daughters of Zeus and the Titan goddess Themis, the goddess of divine order. In others, they were daughters of Ananke, the personification of necessity.
Moirai, the Fates of Greek mythology.
Parcae, the Fates of Roman mythology.
Sudice, the Fates of Slavic mythology.
Norns, the Fates of Norse mythology.
Hebe was the goddess of youth, daughter of Zeus and Hera. She served nectar and ambrosia to the Olympians and later married Heracles, with whom she had two children, Alexiares and Anicetus. Her name comes from the Greek word for youth, and it was believed that she had the ability to restore youth. When Iolaus, Heracles' charioteer, was about to fight against Eurystheus, he asked Hebe to become young again for one day. Hebe was reluctant initially, but Themis, the goddess of justice, told her that it would be fair to do it. Thus, Iolaus' wish was granted and he emerged victorious.
She lost her job as a cupbearer of the gods, when she tripped and her dress came undone, thus exposing her breasts. Apollo fired her and she was replaced by Ganymede, Zeus' lover and protege.
Phobos was the god of fear in Greek mythology, son of the gods Ares and Aphrodite. He was the brother of Deimos (terror), Harmonia (harmony), Adrestia, Eros (love), Anteros, Himerus, and Pothos. He followed his father into battle, along with his companions, Enyo (the war goddess); Eris (the goddess of discord); and his brother, Deimos. The followers of his cult made bloody sacrifices. Phobos was depicted in the shields of heroes who worshipped him, such as Heracles, with his mouth open showing fearful and daunting teeth, according to Hesiod.
The Horae or Hours were the goddesses of the seasons in Greek mythology. They were also considered to be the goddesses of order and justice, as well as the wardens at the gates of Mount Olympus. They were the daughters of either Zeus and Aphrodite, or Zeus and Themis. Two groups of Horae are mentioned in the Greek myths.
The first group was associated with Aphrodite and Zeus, and was linked to the classical three seasons of the year; Thallo (the bringer of blossoms) was the goddess of spring and blooming, protecting young people; Auxo (the increaser of plants); and Carpo (the bringer of food) was linked to autumn, ripening and harvesting. The latter was also the main guardian of the path that led to Mount Olympus and the one who concealed it behind the clouds.
The second group, linked to Themis and Zeus, was closely associated with law and order. The three Horae in this case were Dike, goddess of moral justice; Eunomia, goddess of order and governing according to good laws; and Eirene, goddess of peace and wealth, who was depicted carrying a cornucopia, scepter and a torch.
Pan was the god of the wild, hunting and companion of the nymphs. He was depicted as being half human, while having the legs and horns of a goat, just like a faun; his Roman counterpart was Faunus. It is unclear as to who his parents were; his father may have been Zeus, Dionysus, Hermes, or Apollo. His mother may have been a nymph called Dryope, Penelope who later became the wife of Odysseus, or Aphrodite.
There were no temples attributed to Pan, but he was rather worshipped in natural settings such as caves. It was believed that he often chased nymphs in order to seduce them, but he was always turned down due to his ugly appearance. Moreover, the word 'panic' derives from the name of the goat-like deity. Pan's angry voice was so frightening, that caused panic to anyone who was unlucky to be close enough to hear it.
According to a myth, one day he came across a beautiful nymph called Syrinx. He tried to seduce her, but she managed to run away. Followed by the god, she sought refuge among her sisters, who transformed her into a reed. When the wind started blowing, a melody was produced. Pan, not knowing which reed Syrinx was transformed into, took seven or nine of them and joined them side by side in decreasing length, thus creating his musical instrument that bore the name of the nymph.
The Graeae were three sisters in Greek mythology, who shared one eye and one tooth among them. Their names were Deino (dread), Enyo (horror) and Pemphredo (alarm). They were the daughters of the sea gods Phorcys and Ceto, and sisters of the Gorgons. They took turns using their eye and their tooth.
They appeared in the myth of Perseus, who was trying to find out where three magical objects were located, in order to kill Medusa. He went to the Graeae's cave, and stole their eye. He then told them he would return it if they told him where the three objects were.
Typhoeus or Typhon was considered the mightiest and deadliest monster in Greek mythology. He was the last son of Gaea and Tartarus, created as a last attempt to repel the Olympian gods from defeating the Titans during the Titanomachy.
Known as the "father of all monsters", Typhon was a fire-breathing dragon who had one hundred heads that never slept. After the Titanomachy, Gaea wanted to punish Zeus for imprisoning her Titan children in Tartarus; thus, Typhon was born. Typhon confronted Zeus and in their first battle, managed to repel almost all of the Olympian gods and tear out Zeus' tendons. Hermes managed to get the tendons back and give them to Zeus, who eventually threw his lightning bolts against Typhon and overwhelmed him. He finally trapped him underneath Mount Etna.
Typhon was married to Echidna, who was considered as the "mother of all monsters". The two of them had a number of children, including:
the Sphinx, sent by Hera outside Thebes and killing anyone who could not answer her riddles. Oedipus answered correctly, and Sphinx, enraged, drowned herself in the ocean.
the Nemean Lion, which had impenetrable skin. Heracles was asked to kill it as part of his Twelve Labours.
Cerberus, a three-headed dog that became the guardian of the Underworld.
THE MUSES 55
The Muses were the Greek goddesses of inspiration in literature, science and the arts. They were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (the personification of memory), and they were also considered water nymphs. Some scholars believed that the Muses were primordial goddesses, daughters of the Titans Uranus and Gaea. Personifications of knowledge and art, some of the arts of the Muses included Music, Science, Geography, Mathematics, Art, and Drama. They were usually invoked at the beginning of various lyrical poems, such as in the Homeric epics; this happened so that the Muses give inspiration or speak through the poet's words.
There were nine Muses according to Hesiod, protecting a different art and being symbolised with a different item; Calliope (epic poetry - writing tablet), Clio (history - scroll), Euterpe (lyric poetry - aulos, a Greek flute), Thalia (comedy and pastoral poetry - comic mask), Melpomene (tragedy - tragic mask), Terpsichore (dance - lyre), Erato (love poetry - cithara, a Greek type of lyre), Polyhymnia (sacred poetry - veil), and Urania (astronomy - globe and compass). On the other hand, Varro mentions that only three Muses exist: Melete (practice), Mneme (memory) and Aoide (song).
According to a myth, King Pierus of Macedon named his nine daughters after the Muses, thinking that they were better skilled than the goddesses themselves. As a result, his daughters, the Pierides, were transformed into magpies.
Tyche was the goddess of fortune and prosperity of a city in Greek mythology. She was the daughter of Aphrodite and either Zeus or Hermes, although some sources referred to her as an Oceanid, a daughter of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys. She was often depicted in statues wearing a mural crown, which is a crown having the shapes of city walls. She was linked to Nemesis, goddess of retribution, and Agathos Daimon (the good spirit). Tyche appeared on many coins of the Hellenistic period (after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC).
Paean was the physician of the gods in Greek mythology. He was mentioned in Homer's Iliad, when the god of war, Ares, was wounded by the hero Diomedes; Ares was brought to Mount Olympus, where Paean applied his knowledge and medicine to treat the wound. He also treated Hades in Homer's Odyssey, when Heracles shot an arrow against him. Paean as a god was later put aside, and the word became an epithet for Apollo, initially, and Asclepius, the god of healing, later.
THE ERINNYES 58
The Erinnyes were three female goddesses, seeking vengeance against anyone who had sworn a false oath or had done an evil act. Their Roman equivalents were the Furies or Dirae. They were created when the Titan Uranus was castrated by his son Cronus and his genitals were thrown into the sea; the drops of blood that fell onto Gaia (the earth) created the Erinnyes and the Meliae, while out of the sea foam, Aphrodite emerged.
The number of the Erinnyes is unknown and is very variable; however, three are the best known; Alecto (the unceasing), Megaera (the grudging) and Tisiphone (the vengeful destruction). The role of the Erinnyes was to tantalise anyone who committed crimes, or hubris (insolence against the gods).
One of the best known literary examples in which the Erinnyes had a major role is Aeschylus' trilogy Oresteia; in it, Orestis, the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, slays his mother who had killed her husband for sacrificing their daughter Ifigeneia. Committing such a grave crime as matricide, Orestis is tormented by the Erinnyes and seeks help at the Oracle of Delphi; there, he is told to go to Athens and ask goddess Athena for a trial. In the trial, the Erinnyes appear as accusers of Orestis, saying that more blood must be spilled. The jury votes are evenly split and Athena decides to acquit Orestis. The Erinnyes threaten to torment all Athenians from now on; but Athena, using a mixture of bribery and threats, changes their minds. Instead, the Erinnyes become the Semnai (venerable ones) and instead of vengeance, they become the protectors of justice.
Zelus was a deity in Greek mythology, son of the Titans Pallas and Styx. He was the personification of emulation, zeal and dedication. He was the brother of Nike (victory), Kratos (strength) and Bia (force); all of the siblings were the winged followers of Zeus.
The Oneiroi were primordial deities in Greek mythology, children of Nyx (night) alone, and had numerous siblings, including Hypnos (sleep), Thanatos (death), and Geras (old age). They were the personifications of dreams and according to Euripides, they had the form of black - winged daemons. Based on the Latin poet Ovid, some of the Oneiroi were Morpheus (who presented human images), Phobetor (who presented beasts, birds and serpents) and Phantasos (who presented items made of the elements earth, rock, water and wood). In the Odyssey, the dreams were mentioned as coming through a gate of horn if they were true, or through a gate of ivory if they were false.
Nemesis was the goddess of divine retribution and revenge, who would show her wrath to any human being that would commit hubris, i.e. arrogance before the gods. She was considered a remorseless goddess.
Nemesis was widely used in the Greek tragedies and various other literary works, being the deity that would give what was due to the protagonist. She was often called "Goddess of Rhamnous", an isolated place in Attica, where a temple was attributed to her. It was believed that she was the daughter of the primordial god Oceanus. According to Hesiod, though, she was a child of Erebus and Nyx.
One myth concerning Nemesis is that of Narcissus. He was a young man who was very arrogant and disdained those who loved him. Nemesis led him to a pool, where he saw his reflection and fell in love with it. Unable to abandon his reflection, he died there. According to another myth, Nemesis created an egg, from which two sets of twins hatched; one set was Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra, and the other was the Dioscuri.
In Greek mythology, Tartarus was both a primordial deity that existed before the Olympians, as well as a name to describe a region of the Underworld. As a god, he was third in rank after Chaos and Gaea, preceding Eros.
As a place, it was far below than where Hades resided and it was used as the most horrible prison. Some accounts say that the distance between Tartarus and Hades was the same as between the earth and the heaven. Although the kingdom of Hades was the place of the dead, Tartarus was where ferocious monsters and horrible criminals were banished, or where the gods imprisoned their rivals after a war. The three judges of the Underworld, Rhadamanthus, Aeacus and Minos, decided who would go to the realm of Hades and who would be banished to Tartarus.
Moreover, Cronus, the king of the Titans, imprisoned the Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires in Tartarus, but Zeus released them in order to help him defeat the Titans. When the Titanomachy ended in favour of the Olympians, Zeus banished many of the Titans to Tartarus.
The Charites (singular Charis) or Graces were three or more minor deities in Greek mythology, daughters of Zeus and Eurynome according to the prevalent belief; sometimes, they were considered daughters of Dionysus and Aphrodite; or Helios and Aegle. They were Aglaea (splendor), Euphrosyne (mirth) and Thalia (good cheer), and they were also linked to the Underworld.
In some parts of Ancient Greece, the number of the Graces differed; for example, other names have been included such as Hegemone, Peitho, Pasithea and Cale. In Sparta, Thalia was not considered to be a Grace, and Cleta was included instead. They all were patrons of various pleasures in life, such as play, amusement, rest, happiness and relaxation. In classical art, the Charites were often represented as three naked women dancing in a circle.
Kratos was the personification of strength and power in Greek mythology, son of the Titans Pallas and Styx. He was the brother of Nike (victory), Bia (force), and Zelus (zeal), and the four siblings were the enforcers of Zeus. Along with Hephaestus and Bia, he managed to constrain Prometheus and bind him at the peak of the Caucasus, as punishment for his actions against Zeus' will.
According to other sources, he was an illegitimate child of Zeus with an unnamed mortal woman.
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